search for files in a directory hierarchy
find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]
Base of file name (the path with the leading directories removed) matches shell pattern pattern.
The metacharacters (`*', `?', and `') match a `.' at the start of the base name (this is a
change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CONFORMANCE below). To ignore a directory and
the files under it, use -prune; see an example in the description of -path. Braces are not
recognised as being special, despite the fact that some shells including Bash imbue braces with a
special meaning in shell patterns. The filename matching is performed with the use of the
fnmatch(3) library function. Don't forget to enclose the pattern in quotes in order to protect
it from expansion by the shell.
File is of type c:
b block (buffered) special
c character (unbuffered) special
p named pipe (FIFO)
f regular file
l symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option is in effect,
unless the symbolic link is broken. If you want to search for symbolic links when -L is in
effect, use -xtype.
D door (Solaris)
-print True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline. If you are piping
the output of find into another program and there is the faintest possibility that the files which
you are searching for might contain a newline, then you should seriously consider using the
-print0 option instead of -print. See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how
unusual characters in filenames are handled.
A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated by one of the control operators | or |&. The
format for a pipeline is:
[time [-p]] [ ! ] command [ [|⎪|&] command2 ... ]
The standard output of command is connected via a pipe to the standard input of command2. This
connection is performed before any redirections specified by the command (see REDIRECTION below). If |&
is used, the standard error of command is connected to command2's standard input through the pipe; it is
shorthand for 2>&1 |. This implicit redirection of the standard error is performed after any
redirections specified by the command.
The return status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command, unless the pipefail option is
enabled. If pipefail is enabled, the pipeline's return status is the value of the last (rightmost)
command to exit with a non-zero status, or zero if all commands exit successfully. If the reserved word
! precedes a pipeline, the exit status of that pipeline is the logical negation of the exit status as
described above. The shell waits for all commands in the pipeline to terminate before returning a value.
If the time reserved word precedes a pipeline, the elapsed as well as user and system time consumed by
its execution are reported when the pipeline terminates. The -p option changes the output format to that
specified by POSIX. When the shell is in posix mode, it does not recognize time as a reserved word if
the next token begins with a `-'. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be set to a format string that specifies
how the timing information should be displayed; see the description of TIMEFORMAT under Shell Variables
When the shell is in posix mode, time may be followed by a newline. In this case, the shell displays the
total user and system time consumed by the shell and its children. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be used
to specify the format of the time information.
Each command in a pipeline is executed as a separate process (i.e., in a subshell).
build and execute command lines from standard input
This manual page documents the GNU version of xargs. xargs reads items from the standard input,
delimited by blanks (which can be protected with double or single quotes or a backslash) or newlines, and
executes the command (default is /bin/echo) one or more times with any initial-arguments followed by
items read from standard input. Blank lines on the standard input are ignored.