execute a command as another user
APT package handling utility - - command-line interface
-y, --yes, --assume-yes
Automatic yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts and run non-interactively. If an
undesirable situation, such as changing a held package, trying to install a unauthenticated package
or removing an essential package occurs then apt-get will abort. Configuration Item:
update is used to resynchronize the package index files from their sources. The indexes of available
packages are fetched from the location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list. For example, when using
a Debian archive, this command retrieves and scans the Packages.gz files, so that information about
new and updated packages is available. An update should always be performed before an upgrade or
dist-upgrade. Please be aware that the overall progress meter will be incorrect as the size of the
package files cannot be known in advance.
AND and OR lists are sequences of one of more pipelines separated by the && and || control operators,
respectively. AND and OR lists are executed with left associativity. An AND list has the form
command1 && command2
command2 is executed if, and only if, command1 returns an exit status of zero.
An OR list has the form
command1 || command2
command2 is executed if and only if command1 returns a non-zero exit status. The return status of AND
and OR lists is the exit status of the last command executed in the list.
upgrade is used to install the newest versions of all packages currently installed on the system from
the sources enumerated in /etc/apt/sources.list. Packages currently installed with new versions
available are retrieved and upgraded; under no circumstances are currently installed packages
removed, or packages not already installed retrieved and installed. New versions of currently
installed packages that cannot be upgraded without changing the install status of another package
will be left at their current version. An update must be performed first so that apt-get knows that
new versions of packages are available.
dist-upgrade in addition to performing the function of upgrade, also intelligently handles changing
dependencies with new versions of packages; apt-get has a "smart" conflict resolution system, and it
will attempt to upgrade the most important packages at the expense of less important ones if
necessary. So, dist-upgrade command may remove some packages. The /etc/apt/sources.list file contains
a list of locations from which to retrieve desired package files. See also apt_preferences(5) for a
mechanism for overriding the general settings for individual packages.