Before a command is executed, its input and output may be redirected using a special notation interpreted
by the shell. Redirection may also be used to open and close files for the current shell execution
environment. The following redirection operators may precede or appear anywhere within a simple command
or may follow a command. Redirections are processed in the order they appear, from left to right.
Redirection of input causes the file whose name results from the expansion of word to be opened for
reading on file descriptor n, or the standard input (file descriptor 0) if n is not specified.
The general format for redirecting input is: