A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated by one of the control operators | or |&. The
format for a pipeline is:
[time [-p]] [ ! ] command [ [|⎪|&] command2 ... ]
The standard output of command is connected via a pipe to the standard input of command2. This
connection is performed before any redirections specified by the command (see REDIRECTION below). If |&
is used, the standard error of command is connected to command2's standard input through the pipe; it is
shorthand for 2>&1 |. This implicit redirection of the standard error is performed after any
redirections specified by the command.
The return status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command, unless the pipefail option is
enabled. If pipefail is enabled, the pipeline's return status is the value of the last (rightmost)
command to exit with a non-zero status, or zero if all commands exit successfully. If the reserved word
! precedes a pipeline, the exit status of that pipeline is the logical negation of the exit status as
described above. The shell waits for all commands in the pipeline to terminate before returning a value.
If the time reserved word precedes a pipeline, the elapsed as well as user and system time consumed by
its execution are reported when the pipeline terminates. The -p option changes the output format to that
specified by POSIX. When the shell is in posix mode, it does not recognize time as a reserved word if
the next token begins with a `-'. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be set to a format string that specifies
how the timing information should be displayed; see the description of TIMEFORMAT under Shell Variables
When the shell is in posix mode, time may be followed by a newline. In this case, the shell displays the
total user and system time consumed by the shell and its children. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be used
to specify the format of the time information.
Each command in a pipeline is executed as a separate process (i.e., in a subshell).
-c string If the -c option is present, then commands are read from string. If there are arguments after
the string, they are assigned to the positional parameters, starting with $0.
-i If the -i option is present, the shell is interactive.
-l Make bash act as if it had been invoked as a login shell (see INVOCATION below).
-r If the -r option is present, the shell becomes restricted (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).
-s If the -s option is present, or if no arguments remain after option processing, then commands
are read from the standard input. This option allows the positional parameters to be set when
invoking an interactive shell.
-D A list of all double-quoted strings preceded by $ is printed on the standard output. These are
the strings that are subject to language translation when the current locale is not C or POSIX.
This implies the -n option; no commands will be executed.
shopt_option is one of the shell options accepted by the shopt builtin (see SHELL BUILTIN
COMMANDS below). If shopt_option is present, -O sets the value of that option; +O unsets it.
If shopt_option is not supplied, the names and values of the shell options accepted by shopt
are printed on the standard output. If the invocation option is +O, the output is displayed in
a format that may be reused as input.
-- A -- signals the end of options and disables further option processing. Any arguments after
the -- are treated as filenames and arguments. An argument of - is equivalent to --.
Bash also interprets a number of multi-character options. These options must appear on the command line
before the single-character options to be recognized.