for name [ [ in [ word ... ] ] ; ] do list ; done
The list of words following in is expanded, generating a list of items. The variable name is set
to each element of this list in turn, and list is executed each time. If the in word is omitted,
the for command executes list once for each positional parameter that is set (see PARAMETERS
below). The return status is the exit status of the last command that executes. If the expansion
of the items following in results in an empty list, no commands are executed, and the return
status is 0.
A variable may be assigned to by a statement of the form
If value is not given, the variable is assigned the null string. All values undergo tilde expansion,
parameter and variable expansion, command substitution, arithmetic expansion, and quote removal (see
EXPANSION below). If the variable has its integer attribute set, then value is evaluated as an
arithmetic expression even if the $((...)) expansion is not used (see Arithmetic Expansion below). Word
splitting is not performed, with the exception of "$@" as explained below under Special Parameters.
Pathname expansion is not performed. Assignment statements may also appear as arguments to the alias,
declare, typeset, export, readonly, and local builtin commands.
In the context where an assignment statement is assigning a value to a shell variable or array index, the
+= operator can be used to append to or add to the variable's previous value. When += is applied to a
variable for which the integer attribute has been set, value is evaluated as an arithmetic expression and
added to the variable's current value, which is also evaluated. When += is applied to an array variable
using compound assignment (see Arrays below), the variable's value is not unset (as it is when using =),
and new values are appended to the array beginning at one greater than the array's maximum index (for
indexed arrays) or added as additional key-value pairs in an associative array. When applied to a
string-valued variable, value is expanded and appended to the variable's value.
remove directory entries
-f Do not prompt for confirmation. Do not write diagnostic messages or modify the exit status in the
case of nonexistent operands. Any previous occurrences of the -i option shall be ignored.
AND and OR lists are sequences of one of more pipelines separated by the && and || control operators,
respectively. AND and OR lists are executed with left associativity. An AND list has the form
command1 && command2
command2 is executed if, and only if, command1 returns an exit status of zero.
An OR list has the form
command1 || command2
command2 is executed if and only if command1 returns a non-zero exit status. The return status of AND
and OR lists is the exit status of the last command executed in the list.
execute a command as another user
sudo allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified by the
security policy. The real and effective uid and gid are set to match those of the target user, as
specified in the password database, and the group vector is initialized based on the group database
(unless the -P option was specified).
-v When given the -v (validate) option, sudo will update the user's cached credentials,
authenticating the user's password if necessary. For the sudoers plugin, this extends the
sudo timeout for another 15 minutes (or whatever the timeout is set to in sudoers) but does
not run a command. Not all security policies support cached credentials.
A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated by one of the control operators | or |&. The
format for a pipeline is:
[time [-p]] [ ! ] command [ [|⎪|&] command2 ... ]
The standard output of command is connected via a pipe to the standard input of command2. This
connection is performed before any redirections specified by the command (see REDIRECTION below). If |&
is used, the standard error of command is connected to command2's standard input through the pipe; it is
shorthand for 2>&1 |. This implicit redirection of the standard error is performed after any
redirections specified by the command.
The return status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command, unless the pipefail option is
enabled. If pipefail is enabled, the pipeline's return status is the value of the last (rightmost)
command to exit with a non-zero status, or zero if all commands exit successfully. If the reserved word
! precedes a pipeline, the exit status of that pipeline is the logical negation of the exit status as
described above. The shell waits for all commands in the pipeline to terminate before returning a value.
If the time reserved word precedes a pipeline, the elapsed as well as user and system time consumed by
its execution are reported when the pipeline terminates. The -p option changes the output format to that
specified by POSIX. When the shell is in posix mode, it does not recognize time as a reserved word if
the next token begins with a `-'. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be set to a format string that specifies
how the timing information should be displayed; see the description of TIMEFORMAT under Shell Variables
When the shell is in posix mode, time may be followed by a newline. In this case, the shell displays the
total user and system time consumed by the shell and its children. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be used
to specify the format of the time information.
Each command in a pipeline is executed as a separate process (i.e., in a subshell).
duplicate standard input
-a Append the output to the files.