search for files in a directory hierarchy
find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]
Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.
File name matches shell pattern pattern. The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially;
so, for example,
find . -path "./sr*sc"
will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one exists). To ignore a whole
directory tree, use -prune rather than checking every file in the tree. For example, to skip the
directory `src/emacs' and all files and directories under it, and print the names of the other
files found, do something like this:
find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting from one of the start
points named on the command line. It would only make sense to use an absolute path name here if
the relevant start point is also an absolute path. This means that this command will never match
find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming version of the
A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated by one of the control operators | or |&. The
format for a pipeline is:
[time [-p]] [ ! ] command [ [|⎪|&] command2 ... ]
The standard output of command is connected via a pipe to the standard input of command2. This
connection is performed before any redirections specified by the command (see REDIRECTION below). If |&
is used, the standard error of command is connected to command2's standard input through the pipe; it is
shorthand for 2>&1 |. This implicit redirection of the standard error is performed after any
redirections specified by the command.
The return status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command, unless the pipefail option is
enabled. If pipefail is enabled, the pipeline's return status is the value of the last (rightmost)
command to exit with a non-zero status, or zero if all commands exit successfully. If the reserved word
! precedes a pipeline, the exit status of that pipeline is the logical negation of the exit status as
described above. The shell waits for all commands in the pipeline to terminate before returning a value.
If the time reserved word precedes a pipeline, the elapsed as well as user and system time consumed by
its execution are reported when the pipeline terminates. The -p option changes the output format to that
specified by POSIX. When the shell is in posix mode, it does not recognize time as a reserved word if
the next token begins with a `-'. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be set to a format string that specifies
how the timing information should be displayed; see the description of TIMEFORMAT under Shell Variables
When the shell is in posix mode, time may be followed by a newline. In this case, the shell displays the
total user and system time consumed by the shell and its children. The TIMEFORMAT variable may be used
to specify the format of the time information.
Each command in a pipeline is executed as a separate process (i.e., in a subshell).
print lines matching a pattern
Ignore case distinctions in both the PATTERN and the input files. (-i is specified by POSIX.)
Interpret PATTERN as a Perl regular expression (PCRE, see below). This is highly experimental and
grep -P may warn of unimplemented features.
grep searches the named input FILEs (or standard input if no files are named, or if a single hyphen-minus
(-) is given as file name) for lines containing a match to the given PATTERN. By default, grep prints
the matching lines.
build and execute command lines from standard input
Use at most max-args arguments per command line. Fewer than max-args arguments will be used if
the size (see the -s option) is exceeded, unless the -x option is given, in which case xargs will
Replace occurrences of replace-str in the initial-arguments with names read from standard input.
Also, unquoted blanks do not terminate input items; instead the separator is the newline
character. Implies -x and -L 1.
Run up to max-procs processes at a time; the default is 1. If max-procs is 0, xargs will run as
many processes as possible at a time. Use the -n option with -P; otherwise chances are that only
one exec will be done.
This manual page documents the GNU version of xargs. xargs reads items from the standard input,
delimited by blanks (which can be protected with double or single quotes or a backslash) or newlines, and
executes the command (default is /bin/echo) one or more times with any initial-arguments followed by
items read from standard input. Blank lines on the standard input are ignored.
Commands separated by a ; are executed sequentially; the shell waits for each command to terminate in turn. The
return status is the exit status of the last command executed.