a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and want to
preserve almost everything (with -H being a notable omission). The only exception to the above
equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r is not implied.
Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files is expensive. You
must separately specify -H.
This tells rsync to copy directories recursively. See also --dirs (-d).
Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan that uses much
less memory than before and begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directories
have been completed. This incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm, and does not
change a non-recursive transfer. It is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at
least version 3.0.0.
Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the incremental
recursion mode. These include: --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs, and
--delay-updates. Because of this, the default delete mode when you specify --delete is now
--delete-during when both ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
to request this improved deletion mode explicitly). See also the --delete-delay option that is a
better choice than using --delete-after.
Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r
Output numbers in a more human-readable format. This makes big numbers output using larger units,
with a K, M, or G suffix. If this option was specified once, these units are K (1000), M
(1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated, the units are powers of 1024
instead of 1000.
This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the same as the
source permissions. (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to be
the source permissions.)
When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:
o Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions, though the
--executability option might change just the execute permission for the file.
o New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file’s permissions masked
with the receiving directory’s default permissions (either the receiving process’s umask,
or the permissions specified via the destination directory’s default ACL), and their
special permission bits disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid
bit from its parent directory.
Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync’s behavior is the same as that of
other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).
In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions, use --perms. To
give new files the destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make
sure that the --perms option is off and use --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked
bits get enabled). If you’d care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a
popt alias for it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z
option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):
rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX
You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:
rsync -avZ src/ dest/
(Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two "--no-*" options
The preservation of the destination’s setgid bit on newly-created directories when --perms is off
was added in rsync 2.6.7. Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission
bits for newly-created files when --perms was off, while overriding the destination’s setgid bit
setting on a newly-created directory. Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync
2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present. (Keep
in mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)
With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which
reduces the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.
Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by using a
compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the implicit
information in the matching data blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection.
See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.
This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that aren’t on the
sending side), but only for the directories that are being synchronized. You must have asked
rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard for the
directory’s contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus
gets a request to transfer individual files, not the files’ parent directory. Files that are
excluded from the transfer are also excluded from being deleted unless you use the
--delete-excluded option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).
Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless --recursive was enabled. Beginning
with 2.6.7, deletions will also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories whose
contents are being copied.
This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea to first try a run using
the --dry-run option (-n) to see what files are going to be deleted.
If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files at the destination will
be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors)
on the sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on the destination. You can override
this with the --ignore-errors option.
The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as
well as --delete-excluded. However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync
will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the
--delete-before algorithm when talking to an older rsync. See also --delete-delay and
Local: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]
Access via remote shell:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST
Access via rsync daemon:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST